Developing number and maths
skills

Joanna Nye
and Gillian Bird

Abstract
- Most of us use numerical
and mathematical skills
on a day-to-day basis,
even if this is only at
a simple level of reading
and writing numerals,
often taking these skills
for granted. It is perhaps
surprising that very little
research has been carried
out investigating the
development of these skills
in children with Down
syndrome. At the Centre
we are aware of the increasing
demand from parents and
teachers for more information
about these skills. This
article presents a summary
of the main research findings,
starting with a brief
overview of research carried
out with typically developing
children. A few practical
ideas are also included.

Keywords
- Down Syndrome, Maths,
Number, Children

Introduction

Most
of us use numerical and
mathematical skills on
a day-to-day basis, even
if this is only at a simple
level of reading and writing
numerals, often taking
these skills for granted.
Dealing with money, carrying
out simple calculations,
writing down telephone
numbers and telling the
time are all skills that
are required by independent
adults. It is perhaps
surprising that very little
research has been carried
out investigating the
development of these skills
in children with Down
syndrome. At the Centre
we are aware of the increasing
demand from parents and
teachers for more information
about these skills. This
article presents a summary
of the main research findings,
starting with a brief
overview of research carried
out with typically developing
children. A few practical
ideas are also included.

Research with typically
developing children

A
large body of research
has been carried out looking
at the numerical skills
of typically developing
children without Down
syndrome. The earliest
skill that has been identified
is the ability to distinguish
between groups of different
sizes at 5-months of age.
Some think that this provides
the first building block
in developing numerical
skills. The next major
number milestone is the
development of counting.
A set of five principles
(or sub-skills) are generally
accepted as defining what
counting consists of [1].
These are:

1. The one-to-one principle,
which involves giving
each item in an array
a distinct ‘tag’,
such that one and only
one tag is used for each
item.

2. The stable order principle,
involving the use of a
stable list of tags that
is used for all sets counted.
3. The cardinal principle,
where the final tag in
the count represents the
set as a whole.

3. The abstraction principle,
for which the preceding
principles can be applied
to any array or collection
of items.

4. The order-irrelevance
principle, where the order
and tag that each item
receives is irrelevant.
This principle is said
to distinguish counting
from labelling.

Counting
is thought to provide
the foundations for later
emerging arithmetical
skills which many children
find difficult to learn.
Children are often good
at simple calculations
in meaningful contexts
(for example, if we put
these two soldiers with
these three soldiers,
there will be five soldiers
altogether) but have difficulty
in transfering their skills
to more abstract problems,
particularly the formal
maths taught at school
and using the language
of this system [2]. The
strategies that children
use to solve arithmetical
problems and how they
choose between them have
also been studied in some
detail. Strategies include
using physical materials
to support calculations
(e.g. counting on fingers),
retrieval of facts from
memory and the use of
better known facts to
infer answers. Children
vary in the strategies
they use first, but generally
use more sophisticated
and quicker methods (e.g.
fact retrieval) as soon
as they can rely on their
accuracy. If you are interested
in reading about any of
these areas in more detail
several books exist which
provide excellent reviews
[3] and [4]. In contrast
to the amount we know
about the standard development
of number skills, very
little is known about
the same processes in
children with Down syndrome.
What can we expect from
children with Down syndrome?
Surveys of groups of children
and case studies of individuals
provide information about
the skills of children
and adults with Down syndrome.
These describe skills
attained, often relating
them to specific interventions
and can sometimes suggest
useful advice but they
do not give detailed insight
into the processes that
the children are using
or how these develop.

In
1987 Sue Buckley and Ben
Sacks [5] published a
survey of 90 families
with a teenager with Down
syndrome. The children
had received little early
intervention compared
to children born since
1974. None attended mainstream
schools. Only 18% of the
sample were able to recite
numbers or count objects
beyond 1-20. Approximately
half could do some simple
addition. Few could do
simple multiplication
or division. Skills with
money were also surveyed,
one of the most useful
everyday number skills,
and only 6% were able
to manage independently
in a shop.

In
1988 Janet Carr [6] presented
data taken from a longitudinal
study of 41 children with
Down syndrome. At the
age of 21 the average
young adult's maths skills
compared to those of a
typical 5-year-old, whereas
the average reading age
compared to that of an
8-year-old. This pattern
where maths lags behind
reading ability has also
been found by many other
researchers [7, 8, 9,
10].

Can we predict the skills
that a child with Down
syndrome can achieve?

In
1990 Sloper, Cunningham,
Turner and Knussen [11]
found a significant correlation
between numerical ability
and mental age. Numerical
attainment of 117 children
with Down syndrome was
measured by a questionnaire
(completed by the children’s
teachers), assessing a
range of competencies
from “Discriminates
between largest and smallest
groups of objects”
to “Does simple
division work”.
The children displayed
a wide range of abilities,
but skills were not reported
in detail. Overall educational
attainment was found to
correlate with mental
age and type of school
attended, with mainstream
schools being connected
with favourable educational
attainments. This was
supported by Casey, Jones,
Kugler and Watkins (1988)
[12] who found similar
benefits for children
with Down syndrome attending
mainstream schools, including
in numerical ability.

Baroody
(1986) [13] tested 100
children with learning
disabilities (not specifically
children with Down syndrome)
using a series of games
investigating numerical
skills which children
are expected to have when
entering school in the
US. Baroody found wide
individual differences,
with some children with
lower IQs in the younger
age group performing at
a higher level than some
of the children with higher
IQs in the older age group.
Baroody concluded that
labels such as IQ are
not useful in predicting
levels of numerical ability,
conflicting with the conclusions
drawn by Sloper et al.
Differences in the way
the studies were carried
out may account for this
discrepancy, but at least
this highlights the need
to look at an individual’s
skills, rather than just
using a label such as
‘Down syndrome’
or IQ scores to guide
expectations.

The
different measures used
by Sloper et al. and Baroody
have both been used to
test 16 children with
Down syndrome aged 7 to
12.5 years in research
based at the Sarah Duffen
Centre [14]. The children
displayed a wide range
of abilities. No simple
progression of skills
could be seen, indicating
wide variations in individual
differences.

Most
of the children were able
to carry out counting
and simple addition up
to 10 with concrete materials,
and carry out simple sums
with written numerals
up to 10 with help. Two
of the children were able
to add and subtract numbers
up to 20 without help.
These were also the two
oldest children in the
group, suggesting that
skills continue to improve
with age and appropriate
teaching, with the reasonable
expectation that their
skills will develop further
through their teenage
years and young adulthood.

Are number skills improving?

At
present it is not clear
whether the group of children
with Down syndrome studied
in 1995 have improved
numeracy skills compared
to those studied by Buckley
and Sacks (1987) or Carr
(1988).

In
1994 Billie Shepperdson
[15] compared the number
skills of two generations
of teenagers with Down
syndrome. Professionals
were asked to complete
a questionnaire giving
information about simple
through to more difficult
number skills, and the
teenagers born in the
seventies scored better
than the sixties group
both as teenagers and
as adults. This supports
the suggestion that educational
opportunities have improved
for people with Down syndrome,
and as very few of the
children in Shepperdson’s
study attended mainstream
school there is every
reason to think that these
have improved again for
current and future school
children with Down syndrome.

Counting skills

The
only area where the processes
underlying numerical skills
have been investigated
in children with Down
syndrome is counting.
In 1974 Cornwell [16]
suggested that children
with Down syndrome could
only learn to count by
rote, being unable to
make use of the counting
principles. This causes
inflexibility in counting
(for example, only being
able to count red blocks
laid out in a straight
line), restricting the
usefulness of the skill.

More
recent studies [17, 18]
have provided examples
of children with Down
syndrome who are able
to count flexibly and
can therefore count objects
in situations that they
have not encountered before.
For example, count objects
laid out in a pattern
that they have not encountered
before, such as a circle,
or being told to count
so that the third item
is tagged ‘one’,
needing the child to ‘skip
around’ the objects
in order to count them
all. Successful completion
of such a task mean that
a child is able to make
use of all five of the
counting principles.

If
a child make mistakes
when counting then the
particular errors they
make can indicate which
of the principles they
do not make use of yet
and what teaching should
focus on next. This research
demonstrates that children
with Down syndrome can
learn to count in a useful,
flexible way, but they
may not always do so.

What
can be done to improve
children with Down syndrome’s
number skills? Factors
that are likely to influence
development are improvements
in language and memory
skills and appropriate
experience of counting.
Exactly what these experiences
are have yet to be determined,
but we do have some ideas
that may help your child.
All of these ideas emphasise
the need for variety and
visual stimulation to
keep your child motivated.

The language of number

The
first language requirement
for number work is to
learn the sequence of
number words. These can
be learnt by rote and
need not be ‘understood’.
This understanding may
develop later as more
number activities are
experienced. Once the
count sequence has been
mastered, children are
initially unable to start
the count string anywhere
other than ‘one’.
By experiencing starting
counts at other numbers
a child will be able to
use the sequence more
effectively for basic
arithmetic [20]. Signing
systems also have signs
for number words and may
help consolidate skills
through multi-sensory
learning.

It
should not be taken for
granted that your child
understands all the vocabulary
involved in number work.
Many words that are used
may already be used in
other contexts but have
slightly different meanings
when used with number.
So some work may need
to be done to develop
this vocabulary and the
related concepts when
it is needed. Learning
to read the word at the
same time that the concept
is learnt should help
the child to remember
the vocabulary.

A
mathematical vocabulary
set can be best learnt
in a hierarchy, for example
starting with ‘size’,
then ‘big’
and ‘small’,
then ‘tall/short’,
‘long/short’,
‘wide/narrow’,
etc. Any related concepts
that the child already
knows can be used to develop
understanding. Visual
aids are also the best
way to teach these ideas,
either pictures or real
objects. Gestures can
also be used to draw attention
to the aspect of the object
that is being looked at.

The
following is a list of
vocabulary used in number
work:

* Size: width, height,
length, big, small, little,
fat, thin, long, short,
thick, wide, narrow, biggest,
smallest, longer, bigger,
shorter than, longer than,
as big as, order, compare.

* Area, volume, capacity:
a lot, lots, a little,
a bit, a small bit, empty,
full, much, most, more
than, less than, same.
Weight: heavy, not heavy,
light, heaviest, lightest,
heavier than, lighter
than.

* Units of measurement:
grams, metres, etc.

* Number and algebra:
number words, a lot, all,
some, both,another, not
any, many, same, more,
less, every, enough, as
many as, first, second,
third, etc., last, add,
subtract, take away, guess,
estimate, two times, multiply,
units, tens, hundreds,
repeating pattern, odd,
even.

* Fractions: same, different,
as big as, smaller than,
larger than, whole, piece
of, part, complete, half,
halves, equal, unequal,
quarters, one quarter,
two quarter, one half.

* Time: again, now, after,
soon, today, before, later,
yesterday, early, late,
once, tomorrow, twice,
quick, slow, first, next,
last, days of the week,
weeks in a month, months
in a year, time telling
terminology, o’clock,
half past, quarter to,
quarter past, etc.

* Money: coin names.

* Shapes: round, dot,
spot, line, circle, rectangle,
hexagon, pentagon, square,
oval, triangle, diamond,
3D shapes - sphere, cube,
cylinder, cuboid, pyramid.

* Properties of shapes:
curved, rolls, flat, corner,
edge, straight, right
angle, turning, flip,
symmetry, clockwise, anti-clockwise.

* Spatial relationships:
in, on, under, by, beside,
behind, in front of, next
to, over, through, inside,
outside, out, to , off,
above, below, round, up,
down, front, back, left,
right, forwards, backwards,
top, bottom, middle, first,
next, last.

* Colours, material names,
textures: wood, plastic,
metal, etc. Rough, smooth,
furry, etc.

* Using and applying mathematics:
results, outcome, check,
explain, record, make,
test, predict, prediction.

* Handling data: sets,
maps, diagrams, data collection,
methods of recording data,
for example, tables, lists,
charts, graphs.

Activities

Counting
and arithmetic are so
useful to us because the
abstract concepts about
quantities can be applied
to any situation. Therefore
practising counting and
arithmetic in a variety
of contexts is likely
to promote more flexible
use. Repeated practice
improves number skills,
with skills becoming ‘automatic’
and facts being quickly
retrieved from memory,
both of which reduce the
amount of effort that
is required to complete
a task and hence make
it easier. This is where
schemes such as Kumon
Maths or the Montessori
method may be of use in
making number bonds and
arithmetical facts easy
to retrieve from memory.

Teaching
materials need to be varied
with interesting presentation
and application to keep
children motivated. These
can be made humorous or
made ‘real’.
From what we know about
the learning patterns
of children with Down
syndrome [19], attention
should be drawn to the
connection between the
procedures practised with
abstract materials (e.g.
counting blocks) and used
in ‘real life’
(e.g. counting out cutlery
when laying the table).

Counting
Arthur Baroody is an experienced
researcher in children’s
counting and has provided
useful guidelines for
remedying common difficulties
that children experience
[20]. He stresses the
importance of careful
accurate practice with
an adult drawing the child’s
attention to the relevant
aspects of the task, and
the use of games to aid
motivation.

Board
and dice games are an
excellent resource for
practicing counting, and
good fun too. The first
skill that a child needs
to develop when learning
to count is pairing one
tag with one item (the
one-to-one principle).
Before counting begins
properly this concept
can be aided by practising
pairing sets of items
together (e.g. lids and
jars), both real and pictures.
Once the number sequence
has begun to be learnt
then counting small sets
of objects can be practiced.
There then needs to be
an emphasis on accuracy
in pairing one number
tag with one object, and
making sure that each
object has a tag.

Also
involved in one-to-one
counting is keeping track
of which items have and
have not been counted.
Using a finger to point
can help, but care must
be taken in coordinating
points and number tags
with objects. Other strategies
can be used such as moving
counted items into a separate
pile or marking counted
items on paper worksheets.

Counting
objects laid out in a
line is easier to start
with than objects scattered
about. Once your child
has developed some skill
in this task, try practising
counting objects laid
out in different patterns
(e.g. in a square, triangle,
zig-zag) and randomly
arranged, which require
more advanced strategies
for keeping track of counted
items.

Baroody
suggests that a child
should have some understanding
of the one-to-one principle
and count to 5 before
work begins on the cardinality
principle - that is understanding
that “1, 2, 3, 4,
5 cars” means that
there are “5 cars”.

One
tool for teaching this
principle is the hidden-stars
game. Using cards with
small numbers (2-5) of
stars on them, count the
stars for the child “1,
2. There are 2 stars”.
Cover up the card and
ask “How many stars
am I hiding?” If
they do not answer correctly,
the card can be revealed
“Look, there are
2 stars”.

Once
your child is successful
at this task then let
them count the stars themselves
before covering them up.
This task can be continued,
gradually adding in variations
if you like, until they
have a good grasp that
counting tells us how
many of something there
is, rather than just being
an activity in itself.

Practice
to learn the order-irrelevance
principle can then begin.
Objects can be counted
and then moved about.
The child is asked how
many they think there
are now, before counting
to check their conclusion.
Repeated counting of a
set of items laid out
in different patterns,
along with discussion
with an adult, will allow
the child to realise that
no matter what arrangement
they are in, five cars
are still five cars.

Producing a requested
amount

The
production of a specific
number of items from a
bigger group may also
cause difficulties. The
child needs to remember
how many items are to
be counted out, while
co-ordinating the count
sequence with each item
produced. Often children
will continue to count
out all the items in a
pile rather than stopping
at the specified quantity.

Before
moving on to producing
items you should make
sure that your child is
able to accurately count
a given set. Once again
accurate practice at producing
a set of items should
remedy further difficulties,
and activities such as
moving a counter on a
board game provides excellent
experience. If the child
seems to be having difficulties
in stopping at the correct
item, then point out that
they need to remember
how many to give. You
may find that you need
to help your child to
develop a strategy, such
as rehearsing the number
required several times
before the count starts.
Again production of small
numbers should be started
with, increasing the size
of the set once accuracy
has improved.

Judging the equality or
inequality of sets

The
next step is to use the
counting skills to compare
between sets. Judgements
about equality and inequality
of sets are often made
on the basis of length
by young children to begin
with, but they need to
learn that this is not
always an accurate strategy.
Sometimes placing items
one-to-one next to each
other can help to make
equality judgements but
this is not always practical.

A
more useful strategy is
to use counting. Practice
at counting and comparing
sets should be carried
out, with stress being
placed on the cardinal
value of each set being
compared. Small sets that
are equal should be started
with, moving on to sets
that are clearly unequal
(1 vs. 6) and then sets
are less obviously different
(2 vs. 3). Number dominoes
or lotto games could be
useful here, especially
ones that use sets in
different arrangements.
Related to this judgement
skill is the concept of
‘conservation’.
This refers to the understanding
that as long as nothing
has been added to a set,
even if it has been moved
about, the cardinal value
of the set remains the
same or has been ‘conserved’.
Again practising counting,
moving the arrangement
of the items and counting
again should help this
understanding of conservation
to develop.

Judgements about more
and less

Although
initially it is not important
to ‘understand’
the number terms as they
are learnt, for later
skills such understanding
is important. To make
judgements about which
set has more, it is necessary
to know that five is bigger
than three, etc. Children
do not always develop
this understanding themselves
and therefore it may be
necessary to teach this
idea, as well as the concepts
of bigger, smaller, less
and more. Before this
is attempted the child
should be competent in
counting and the count
word sequence.

Activities
using a ‘staircase’
concept of numbers may
be useful. For example
making lines of objects
or blocks (e.g. multilink),
first one block, then
two, then three, etc.,
drawing your child’s
attention to how two is
more than one, and how
the lines of blocks get
longer as the numbers
increase. Number labels
can be added to each ‘step’.
Activities such as adding
play people to a bus can
also be used, adding one
at a time and saying each
time “two on the
bus...one more...three
on the bus”. Games
can be played which use
comparisons between two
dice rolled or cards drawn
to judge the ‘winner’.
Once your child can make
judgements based on counting
concrete materials then
they can progress to making
judgements based on numerals.

More advanced concepts

Wendy
Rinaldi, a speech and
language therapist with
'ICAN', has found the
following strategy highly
effective for improving
language and maths concept
learning in school-aged
children with language
impairments. The activities
were presented as small
group activities enabling
easy differentiation but
some could be adapted
to work with individual
children (or whole classes).
Also the general strategy
of using different activities
to repeatedly practice
a concept can be implemented
with one-to-one activities,
and the level of tasks
adjusted to suit the individual
child’s needs. With
each set of concepts that
is being learnt each of
the following 12 activities
are worked through, starting
with the most basic tasks
and gradually getting
more difficult. This system
means that the concepts
and language are well
practiced and experienced
in a wide variety of contexts.
As well as improving flexible
use of concepts, using
a variety of activities
helps to keep the child
motivated. The tasks are
designed to emphasise
the use of visual presentation
methods wherever possible,
so are particularly appropriate
for children with Down
syndrome. The examples
given relate to teaching
2D and 3D shapes.

1. Hands on! Introduction
to the topic using real
objects and the vocabulary
used. Visual aids and
gestures used.

2. Matching games. e.g.
2D to 3D, real object
to picture. “Here
is a square. Can you find
its 3D partner?”

3. Finding games. e.g.
“Can you find a
cube?” from selection
of objects.

4. Posters. Poster of
spaceships, spiders, robots,
etc. each with all its
parts made out of a different
shapes (a circle spaceship,
a square spaceship, etc.)
or a poster of all the
things the class can think
of that are square, etc.

5. Colouring in to direction.
e.g. using worksheets
filled with shapes - “Colour
in all the squares.”
“Colour in all the
triangles in blue and
all the circles in green.”

6. Right or wrong? - give
a statement and child
has to say whether it
is right or wrong. e.g.
“A cube is a solid,
right or wrong?”

7. Board game. Make a
simple board game, with
every other square marked
as a ‘question square’.
When a child lands on
a question square thay
have to take a card and
answer the question on
it. e.g. “What is
the 2D friend of the cube?”
“Name a 3D shape.”

8. Guessing game. Each
child has a card with
a shape on it. They take
turns in asking each other
questions until they can
guess what is on each
others’ cards.

9. Card games. e.g. happy
families, pairs, slow
snap. Taskmaster make
playing cards with one
blank side that are useful
for making your own games
like these.

10. Name two things. An
object (beanbag, ball,
etc.) is passed around
the group sat in a circle,
while one person sits
in the middle with his
or her eyes closed. The
child in the middle says
“Stop” and
asks a question or gives
an instruction “Name
two 3D shapes”.
Whoever has the object
has to answer and then
swaps places to sit in
the middle.

11. TV Programmes. Each
child takes a turn in
pretending to be an expert
on the topic (e.g. 3D
shapes) talking to the
‘audience’
. The children can also
ask each other questions.

12. Detective game. One
person picks an object
out of a set that is in
the middle of the circle
and keeps it secret. The
rest of the group has
to ask questions gradually
eliminating the rest of
the items until they can
work out what it is (e.g
“Is it a solid?”,
“Is it the 3D friend
of the square?”).

No
doubt you can think of
many more activities that
could fit into this framework,
making use of any special
interests that your child
has.

References

1. Gelman, R. and Gallistel,
C.R. (1978). The Child’s
Understanding of Number.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press.

2. Hughes, M. (1986).
Children and Number. Oxford:
Blackwell.

3. Geary, D.C. (1994).
Children’s Mathematical
Development: Research
and Practical Applications.
Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association.

4. Siegler, R.S. (1991).
Children’s Thinking.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall.

5. Buckley, S. and Sacks,
B. (1987). The Adolescent
with Down Syndrome. Portsmouth:
Portsmouth Polytechnic.

6. Carr, J. (1988). Six
weeks to twenty-one years
old: A longitudinal study
of children with Down
syndrome and their families.
Journal of Child Psychology
and Psychiatry, 29(4),
407-431.

7. Pototzky, C. and Grigg,
A.E. (1942). A revision
of the prognosis in mongolism.
American Journal of Orthopsy-chiatry,
12, 503-510.

8. Dunsden, M.I., Carter,
C.O. and Huntley, R.M.C.
(1960). Upper end range
of intelligence in mongolism.
Lancet, i, 565-568.

9. Gibson, D. (1978).
Down Syndrome: The Psychobiology
of Mongolism. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.

10. Buckley, S. (1985).
Attaining basic educational
skills: Reading, writing
and number. In D. Lane
and B. Stratford (eds.),
Current Approaches to
Down Syndrome (pp. 315-343).
London: Holt, Rinehart
and Winston.

11. Sloper, P., Cunningham,
C., Turner, S. and Knussen,
C. (1990). Factors relating
to the academic attainments
of children with Down
syndrome. British Journal
of Educational Psychology,
60, 284-298.

12. Casey, W., Jones,
D., Kugler, B. and Watkins,
B. (1988). Integration
of Down syndrome children
in the primary school:
A longitudinal study of
cognitive development
and academic attainments.
British Journal of Educational
Psychology, 58, 279-286.

13. Baroody, A.J. (1986).
Counting ability of moderately
and mildly handicapped
children. Education and
Training of the Mentally
Retarded, 21, 289-300.

14. Nye, J., Clibbens,
J. and Bird, G. (1995).
Numerical ability, general
ability and language in
children with Down syndrome.
Down Syndrome: Research
and Practice, 3(3), 92-102.
Available Online: http://www.down-syndrome.net/library/periodicals/dsrp/03/3/092/

15. Shepperdson, B. (1994).
Attainments in reading
and number of teenagers
and young adults with
Down syndrome. Down Syndrome:
Research and Practice,
2(3), 97-101. Available
Online: http://www.down-syndrome.net/library/periodicals/dsrp/02/3/097/

16. Cornwell, A.C. (1974).
Development of language,
abstraction, and numerical
concept formation in Down
syndrome children. American
Journal of Mental Deficiency,
79(2), 179-190.

17. Gelman, R. and Cohen,
M. (1988). Qualitative
differences in the way
Down syndrome and normal
children solve a novel
counting problem. In L.
Nadel (ed.), The Psychobiology
of Down Syndrome. Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press.

18. Caycho, L., Gunn,
P. and Siegal, M. (1991).
Counting by children with
Down syndrome. American
Journal on Mental Retardation,
95(5), 575-583.

19. Bird, G. and Buckley,
S. (1994). Meeting the
Educational Needs of Children
with Down Syndrome. Portsmouth:
The University of Portsmouth.
Available Online: http://www.down-syndrome.net/library/books/meeting-ed-needs/

20. Baroody, A.J. (1992).
Remedying common counting
difficulties. In J. Bideaud,
C. Meljac and J.-P. Fischer
(Eds.), Pathways to Number:
Children’s Developing
Numerical Abilities. Hove
and London: LEA

Addresses

* Taskmaster Limited,
Morris Road, Leicester,
LE2 6BR.

* ICAN, Barbican Citygate,
1-3 Dufferin Street, London,
EC1Y 8NA (Tel: 0171 374
4422).

More
practical ideas on how
to improve your child’s
counting and arithmetical
skills:

* Bird, G. and Buckley,
S. (1994) Meeting the
Educational Needs of Children
with Down Syndrome. Portsmouth:
The University of Portsmouth.
Available Online: http://www.down-syndrome.net/library/books/meeting-ed-needs/

* Broadley, I. (1991)
Encouraging cognitive
development: Part 1: Ideas
for teaching. Part 2:
Number skills. Portsmouth
Down Syndrome Trust Newsletter,
1(4), 4-11 and 2(1), 7-9.
(Reprint ref N3)

* Green, R. and Laxon,
V. (1978) Entering the
World of Number. London:
Thames and Hudson.